Article 2: The Personal Learning Space

The andragogy model (Conner, 1997-2004), the self-directed learning model (Smith, 1996), and blooms taxonomy of reflective thinking all demonstrate the impact people have on their own learning. These models show us how people benefit from being in control of their learning, directing themselves through the information and most importantly evaluating what worked well for them and what they might change next time. In an article written by Cherry (2017), the idea of self-efficacy was explored. This perfectly sums up how individuals have the power to succeed it is just dependent on how willing they are to take the opportunities. Albert Bandura defined self-efficacy as “the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations.”, these are beliefs of how people think, behave and feel (Cherry, 2017). I think that this is a really great treat to have and something that adults should reinforce in younger children. This really resonates with me as being a pre-service teacher you can see how students have a real lack of confidence in themselves to achieve challenges. Bandura explains how this can be done through providing mastery experiences, social modelling, social persuasions and psychological responses (Cherry, 2017). Self-direction ties in closely with this, Malcolm Knowles describes “a process… in which individuals take the initiative, with or without the help of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.” (Smith, 1996). With confidence in themselves and appropriate support all children and adults have the foundations to succeed in whatever it may be.



Cherry, K. (2017). Self Efficacy: Why Believing in Yourself Matters. Retrieved from

 Pappas, P. (2010). The Reflective Student: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 2). Retrieved from

 Pew, S. (2007). Andragogy and Pedagogy as Foundational Theory for Student Motivation in Higher Education. Student Motivation, 2, 17-18.

 Smith, M. (1996). Self-direction in learning. Retrieved from


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